Growth & Undernutrition – Kid Clinical Research

A collection of clinical studies to help address nutrition challenges in kids.

How Does Human Milk Affect Childhood Growth & Development?

There are major gaps in our understanding of how human milk components influence childhood growth and development. This article provides summaries of key findings from studies on human milk macronutrients, human milk micronutrients, and human milk bioactive components, which help us to better understand the connection.

Garber E. American Society for Nutrition. nutrition.org/how-does-human-milk-affect-childhood-growth-development/. Published November 27, 2023.

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US Pediatrician Practices on Early Nutrition, Feeding, and Growth

Review the results of this study on self-reported pediatrician practices around growth and nutrition for children under 2 years.

Boundy EO, Fisher Boyd A, Hamner HC, et al. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2020;52(1):31-38. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2019.10.006

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The Role of the Pediatrician in the Promotion of Healthy, Active Living 

Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, excessive screen and social media use—these are some of the factors shown to negatively impact the overall health of children and adolescents. Find recommendations for health and wellness practices to improve your patients' well-being.

Muth ND, Bolling C, Hannon T, Sharifi M; Section on Obesity; Comittee on Nutrition. Pediatrics. 2024;153(3):e2023065480. doi:10.1542/peds.2023-065480

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AAP Recommendations For Prevention And Control Of Influenza In Children

Following the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), this technical report advocates for the routine use of influenza vaccines in children and provides guidance on vaccine storage, administration, and implementation..

Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pediatrics. 2022;150(4):e2022059274. doi:10.1542/peds.2022-059274

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Picky Eating in School-Aged Children: Sociodemographic Determinants and the Associations With Dietary Intake

Children who are picky eaters show strong food preferences and reject particular foods or food textures, which can lead to an inadequate or unhealthy diet.

Kutbi HA. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2518. doi: 10.3390/nu13082518.

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Effect of Oral Nutritional Supplementation (ONS) on Growth in Children With Undernutrition

Read a meta-analysis of undernutrition in children and how the use of ONS as a nutritional intervention resulted in significantly better growth, particularly for those who were mildly or moderately undernourished.

Zhang Z, Li F, Hannon BA, et al. Nutrients. 2021;13(9):3036. doi: 10.3390/nu13093036.

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Catch-Up Growth in Infants & Young Children With Faltering Growth (FG): Expert Opinion to Guide General Clinicians

This study reports practical recommendations for general clinicians on how FG should be defined in different young child populations at risk, how FG should be assessed and managed, and the role of catch-up growth after a period of FG.

Cooke R, Goulet O, Huysentruyt K, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2023;77(1):7-15. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000003784

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Nutritional Rehab of Malnourished Children: Are Nutritional Supplements a Must?

Individualized nutrition plans can improve caloric intake, growth, and laboratory parameters. Adding a nutritional supplement to an individualized nutrition plan can promote superior nutritional rehabilitation.

Emam EK, Nassar MF, Allam MF, Ahmed MM, Elkholy HE. Curr Med Res Opin. 2023;39(2):281-287. doi:10.1080/03007995.2022.2135839

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Pediatric Malnutrition Screening Tools

Nutrition screening tools have been developed for pediatric patients to help facilitate the identification of kids at risk for malnutrition. This review provides an overview of recent progress in screening methods.

Hulst JM, Huysentruyt K, Joosten KF. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2020;23(3):203-209. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000644

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Malnutrition Among Hospitalized Children

Malnutrition continues to be underdiagnosed in hospital settings. This study showed that while there has been improvement in diagnosis of pediatric malnutrition, it continues to be underdiagnosed and healthcare provider education may mitigate this problem.

Carvalho-Salemi J, Phillips W, Wong Vega M, Swanson J, Becker PJ, Salemi JL. [published online 2022 May 31]. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2022;S2212-2672(22)00315-X. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2022.05.021

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Nutrition in Adolescent Growth and Development

Adolescence is a nutrition-sensitive phase for growth, during which the benefits of good nutrition extend to many physiological systems.

Norris SA, Frongillo EA, Black MM, et al. Lancet. 2022;399(10320):172-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01590-7

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MUAC Performance for Identifying Overweight or Obesity in Children

A systematic review of existing evidence on the performance of mid-upper arm circumference for identifying children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

Sisay BG, Hassen HY, Jima BR, Atlantis E, Gebreyesus SH. Public Health Nutr. 2022;25(3):607-616. doi:10.1017/S1368980022000143

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Longitudinal Growth and Health Outcomes in Nutritionally At-Risk Children Who Received Long-Term Nutritional Intervention

A long-term supplementation study on nutritionally at-risk children to evaluate the benefits of receiving oral nutritional supplement.

Huynh DT, Estorninos E, Capeding RZ, Oliver JS, Low YL, Rosales FJ. Longitudinal growth and health outcomes in nutritionally at-risk children who received long-term nutritional intervention. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015;28(6):623-635. doi:10.1111/jhn.12306

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Impact of Long-term Use of Oral Nutritional Supplement on Nutritional Adequacy, Dietary Diversity, Food Intake and Growth of Filipino Preschool Children

This publication analyzes nutrient deficiencies during childhood and their adverse effects on child growth and health, the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) on nutritional adequacy, and dietary counseling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children.

Huynh DT, Estorninos E, Capeding MR, Oliver JS, Low YL, Rosales FJ. J Nutr Sci. 2016;5:e20. Published 2016 May 13. doi:10.1017/jns.2016.6

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Clinical Summary- PediaSure® Supplementation and Dietary Counseling Result in Healthy, Balanced Growth and Increased Diet Diversity for Children Behind in Growth

Three research studies evaluating the effect of oral supplementation (ONS using PediaSure®) on catch-up growth, obesity risks and table food consumption in nutritionally at-risk children.

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Clinical Summary-Utilization of Current Diagnostic Indicators to Characterize Pediatric Malnutrition Among US Children

A summary of current diagnostic indicators used to characterize pediatric malnutrition/undernutrition among children in the United States.

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Effect of Oral Supplementation on Catch-up Growth in Picky Eaters

A randomized study of children exhibiting picky-eater behavior and evidence of growth faltering who received either nutrition counseling alone, or nutrition counseling plus a nutritional supplement.

Alarcon PA, Lin LH, Noche M, et al. Clin Pediatr. 2003;42(3), 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1177/000992280304200304
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Effect of Nutritional Intervention on Physical Growth in Children at Risk of Malnutrition

A study evaluating the effects of oral nutritional supplementation and dietary counseling on the growth and nutritional status of children at risk for malnutrition.

Fiore P, Castagnola E, & Merolla R. Int J Pediatr. 2002;17(3), 179-183.

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Utilization of Current Diagnostic Indicators to Characterize Pediatric Undernutrition among US Children

A study examining the prevalence of pediatric undernutrition in the US population using Z-score assessments.

Price AA, Williams JA, Estes Doetsch H, Spees, CK, & Taylor, CA. Nutrients. 2020;12(5), 1409. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051409

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Oral Nutritional Supplement in the Treatment of Severe Malnutrition in Pakistani Children

A study using oral nutritional supplement to increase caloric intake and improve Z score results.

Akram DS, Bharmal FY, & Hussain T. PediaSure in the treatment of severe malnutrition in Pakistani children. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 2000; 50(11), 377–380.

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Dietary Management of Malnourished Children with a New Enteral Feeding

Growth studies of children recovering from protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) using a concentrated formula and its results.

Morales E, Craig LD, & MacLean WC, Jr. J Am Diet Assoc. 1991;91(10), 1233–1238.

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Effect of Oral Nutritional Supplementation with or without Synbiotics on Sickness and Catch-up Growth in Preschool Children

A double-blind, randomized study on using synbiotics (a combination of prebiotics and probiotics) as a nutritional supplement for children.

Martin F, Belinchón P, Martínez-Costa C, et al. Int J Pediatr. 2002;17.

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