Prematurity & Growth/Malnutrition - Infant Clinical Research

A collection of studies on preterm infants and the effects of human milk fortifiers (HMF) and probiotics on their growth and nutrient intake.

Targeted Breast Milk Fortification for Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants: Nutritional Intake, Growth Outcome, and Body Composition

An interventional study compared body composition and growth outcomes of very low-birth-weight infants fed targeted protein-fortified human milk (HM) with those fed standard fortified HM.

Parat S, et al. Nutrients. 2020:12(4):1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041156

Comparison of the Effect of Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

A study which compared and quantified effects on premature infants being fed Acidified Liquid HMF (ALHMF) versus those receiving powdered HMF (PHMF).

Thoene, M., Hanson, C., Lyden, E., Dugick, L., Ruybal, L., & Anderson-Berry, A. Comparison of the effect of two human milk fortifiers on clinical outcomes in premature infants. Nutrients. 2014; 6(1), 261–275. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6010261

Probiotics and Preterm Infants: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee (ESPGHAN) on Nutrition and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics

This ESPGHAN probiotic meta-analysis paper identifies strains with high efficacy and addresses safety issues of probiotic supplementation to preterm infants, who have reduced immunological capacities and occasional indwelling catheters.

van den Akker, C., van Goudoever, J. B., Shamir, R., Domellöf, M., Embleton, N. D., Hojsak, I., Lapillonne, A., Mihatsch, W. A., Berni Canani, R., Bronsky, J., Campoy, C., Fewtrell, M. S., Fidler Mis, N., Guarino, A., Hulst, J. M., Indrio, F., Kolaček, S., Orel, R., Vandenplas, Y., Weizman, Z., Szajewska, H. (2020). Probiotics and Preterm Infants: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 70(5), 664–680. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002655

Improved Outcomes in Preterm Infants Fed a Nonacidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial

A controlled study with the goal of comparing growth, feeding tolerance, and clinical and biochemical evaluations in human milk-fed preterm infants who received either an acidified or nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier.

Schanler, R. J., Groh-Wargo, S. L., Barrett-Reis, B., White, R. D., Ahmad, K. A., Oliver, J., Baggs, G., Williams, L., & Adamkin, D. (2018). Improved Outcomes in Preterm Infants Fed a Nonacidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial. The Journal of Pediatrics, 202, 31–37.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.005

Growth and Tolerance of Preterm Infants Fed a New Extensively Hydrolyzed Liquid Human Milk Fortifier

This study was a comparison of growth and tolerance in premature infants fed either standard powdered human milk fortifier (HMF) or a newly formulated concentrated liquid that contained extensively hydrolyzed protein.

Kim, J. H., Chan, G., Schanler, R., Groh-Wargo, S., Bloom, B., Dimmit, R., Williams, L., Baggs, G., & Barrett-Reis, B. (2015). Growth and Tolerance of Preterm Infants Fed a New Extensively Hydrolyzed Liquid Human Milk Fortifier. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 61(6), 665–671. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001010

Growth of Preterm Infants Fed Nutrient-Enriched or Term Formula After Hospital Discharge

A double-blind study evaluating the growth of preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched or term formula after hospital discharge.

Carver, J. D., Wu, P. Y., Hall, R. T., Ziegler, E. E., Sosa, R., Jacobs, J., Baggs, G., Auestad, N., & Lloyd, B. (2001). Growth of preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched or term formula after hospital discharge. Pediatrics, 107(4), 683–689. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.4.683

Body Composition in Preterm Infants Who Are Fed Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

This study evaluates growth and body composition in premature infants who were fed formulas that contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Groh-Wargo, S., Jacobs, J., Auestad, N., O'Connor, D. L., Moore, J. J., & Lerner, E. (2005). Body composition in preterm infants who are fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatric Research, 57(5 Pt 1), 712–718. https://doi.org/10.1203/01.PDR.0000156509.29310.55

Growth and Development in Preterm Infants Fed Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial

A randomized trial which assessed growth and development in premature infants fed formulas with oils containing the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

O'Connor, D. L., Hall, R., Adamkin, D., Auestad, N., Castillo, M., Connor, W. E., Connor, S. L., Fitzgerald, K., Groh-Wargo, S., Hartmann, E. E., Jacobs, J., Janowsky, J., Lucas, A., Margeson, D., Mena, P., Neuringer, M., Nesin, M., Singer, L., Stephenson, T., Szabo, J., … Ross Preterm Lipid Study (2001). Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 108(2), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.108.2.359

Prospective Comparison Study Comparing Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

A prospective comparison of Enfamil and Similac liquid human milk fortifier on growth and metabolic outcomes in premature infants.

Kumar, N., Monga, R., Sampath, V., & Ehrhart, B. (2017). Prospective Comparison of Enfamil and Similac Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants. American Journal of Perinatology, 34(14), 1411–1416. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1603940