Studies analyzing challenges surrounding preterm infant nutrition, growth, and development.

Review of Post-NICU Support for Families With Preterm Infants

A successful transition from hospital to home is essential for the well-being of preterm infants. This review identified communication interventions that may help reduce parental stress and provide needed support.

Griffith T, Singh A, Naber M, et al. J Pediatr Nurs. 2022;67:e135-e149. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2022.08.014

Optimizing Early Neonatal Nutrition & Dietary Patterns In Premature Infants

Explore a review summarizing evidence regarding preterm infant enteral nutrition and early postnatal growth.

Wiechers C, Bernhard W, Goelz R, Poets CF, Franz AR. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(14):7544. Published 2021 Jul 15. doi:10.3390/ijerph18147544

Post-Discharge Nutrition in Preterm Infants

This review examined and reanalyzed existing evidence to clarify the ways this body of clinical research may have a positive impact on the post-discharge nutrition approach to preterm infants.

Lucas A, Sherman J, Fewtrell M. Neoreviews. 2022;23(8):e541-e557. doi:10.1542/neo.23-8-e541

Acidified Feedings in Preterm Infants: A Historical and Physiological Perspective

This article reviews the history of acidified feedings in infants and contemporary research on the use of acidified human milk fortifiers, its effects on preterm infants, and the underlying physiological mechanisms of action.

Barrett-Reis B, Shakeel F, Dennis L, Baggs G, Masor ML. Am J Perinatol. 2023;40(2):141-148. doi:10.1055/s-0042-1749166

Neonatal Gut Microbiome & Immunity

This study examines recent findings on the neonatal gut microbiome and discusses their implications for understanding this driver of the maturation of the immune system and immunity against infections.

Sanidad KZ, Zeng MY. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2020;56:30-37. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2020.05.011

Post-discharge Feeding of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants (VLBW): Adherence to Nutrition Guidelines

Read a study that explored feeding practices versus feeding guideline adherence for nutritionally vulnerable VLBW infants. This study followed post-discharge feeding practices for those born VLBW to see if they aligned with current recommendations.

Francis J, Unger S, Bando N, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018;67(3):401-408. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002041

Enteral Vitamin D Supplementation in Preterm or Low-Birth-Weight (LBW) Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Read a study which assessed the effects of enteral vitamin D supplementation compared with no vitamin D supplementation in human milk-fed preterm or LBW infants.

Kumar M, Shaikh S, Sinha B, et al. Pediatrics. 2022;150(Suppl 1):e2022057092K. doi:10.1542/peds.2022-057092K

Catch-up Growth in Very Preterm-Born Infants (VPI)

Review the clinical study that showed achievable catch-up growth in VPI when transitional formula complements human milk feeding.

Fernandes AI, Gollins LA, Hagan JL, Hair AB. J Perinatol. 2022. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01510-6

Protein Enrichment of Donor Breast Milk and Impact on Growth Study

Infants in the study received initial feedings of donor breast milk, maternal breast milk, or donor breast milk with protein enrichment; followed by multi-nutrient-fortified human milk. Initial protein enrichment of donor breast milk appeared safe for stable very low-birth-weight infants.

Fu TT, Kaplan HC, Fields T, Folger AT, Gordon K, Poindexter BB. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2869. doi:10.3390/nu13082869

Targeted Breast Milk Fortification for Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants: Nutritional Intake, Growth Outcome, and Body Composition

An interventional study compared body composition and growth outcomes of very low-birth-weight infants fed targeted protein-fortified human milk (HM) with those fed standard fortified HM.

Parat S, Raza P, Kamleh M, Super D, Groh-Wargo S. Nutrients. 2020;12(4):1156. doi:10.3390/nu12041156

Comparison of the Effect of Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

A study which compared and quantified effects of feeding acidified liquid HMF (ALHMF) versus powder HMF (PHMF) in a premature infant population.

Thoene M, Hanson C, Lyden E, Dugick L, Ruybal L, & Anderson-Berry A. Nutrients. 2014;6(1):261–275.

Probiotics and Preterm Infants: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee (ESPGHAN) on Nutrition and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics

This ESPGHAN probiotic meta-analysis paper identified strains with high efficacy and addressed safety issues of probiotic supplementation to preterm infants, who have reduced immunological capacities and occasional indwelling catheters.

van den Akker C, van Goudoever JB, Shamir R, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020;70(5):664-680. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002655

Improved Outcomes in Preterm Infants Fed a Nonacidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial

A randomized, controlled study that compared growth, feeding intolerance, and clinical and biochemical evaluations in human milk-fed preterm infants who received either an acidified or nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier.

Schanler RJ, Groh-Wargo SL, Barrett-Reis B, et al. J Pediatr. 2018;202:31-37.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.005

Growth and Tolerance of Preterm Infants Fed a New Extensively Hydrolyzed Liquid Human Milk Fortifier

This randomized, controlled study compared growth and tolerance in premature infants fed human milk with either standard powdered human milk fortifier (HMF) or a newly formulated concentrated liquid HMF.

Kim JH, Chan G, Schanler R, et al. [Published correction appears in J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Jan;62(1):188-9]. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;61(6):665-671. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001010

Growth of Preterm Infants Fed Nutrient-Enriched or Term Formula After Hospital Discharge

A double-blind study which evaluated the growth of preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched or term formula after hospital discharge.

Carver JD, Wu PY, Hall RT, et al. Pediatrics. 2001;107(4):683-689. doi:10.1542/peds.107.4.683

Body Composition in Preterm Infants Who Are Fed Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

This study evaluated growth and body composition in premature infants who were fed formulas that contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Groh-Wargo S, Jacobs J, Auestad N, O'Connor DL, Moore JJ, & Lerner E. Pediatr Res. 2005;57(5 Pt 1):712–718.

Associations of Early Nutrition with Growth and Body Composition in Very Preterm Infants: A Prospective Cohort Study

This study investigated impacts of early postnatal macronutrient intakes on growth and body composition of preterm infants within the first 6 months.

Han J, Zhang L, Li S, et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2022;76(1):103-110. doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00901-w

Growth and Development in Preterm Infants Fed Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial

A randomized trial which assessed growth and development in premature infants fed formulas with oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

O'Connor DL, Hall R, Adamkin D, et al. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):359-371. doi:10.1542/peds.108.2.359

Prospective Comparison Study Comparing Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

A prospective comparison of Enfamil and Similac liquid human milk fortifier on growth and metabolic outcomes in premature infants.

Kumar N, Monga R, Sampath V, & Ehrhart B. Am J Perinat. 2017;34(14), 1411–1416.

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